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初中英语语法-代词讲解

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初中英语语法 代词

代词:为了避免重复而用来代替其他词的词。

种类:1) 人称 2) 物主 3) 反身 4) 指示 5)不定 6) 疑问

7) 相互代词:each other, one another 互相, 其所有格加-’s
8) 关系代词:which, who,that,whom,whose 等 引导定语从句

9) 连接代词:who, whom, whose, what, which, whatever, whichever, whoever, whomever 10)替代词:one(单数), ones(复数) 用于替代前面出现的同类事物。但 ones 必须和形容词连用。如果替代的名

词时无形容词在前,则用 some, any,而不用 ones。如:Have you bought any rulers Yes,I 've bought some.

一、人称代词

1. 人称代词的形式

单数

复数

第一人称 第二人称

第三人称

第一

第二

第三

主格

I

you

he

she

it

we

you

they

宾格

me

you

him

her

it

us

you

them

2. 人称代词的句法功能

功能

例句

主格 宾格
it 的 特殊 用法

作主语

They are fourteen years old. / She is a Chinese teacher.

作动词宾语 The box is too heavy. Let me help you. / I like it very much.

作介词宾语 Mary didn’t want to go with me.

作表语

--- Who is standing over there --- It’s me.

指时间

It is early spring, but it’s already very hot.

指天气

It rained ________________(大)last night.

指距离

It’s about five ___________(minute)walk from here to the library. How far is it from your school to your home

作形式主语、 It is very nice of you to help me.

形式宾语 I find it easy to learn English well.

指前文提到 -Where’s my book -It’s over there.
的物

指不知性别 的婴儿或不 确指性别的


The baby is crying. It may be hungry.

3. 人称代词的排列顺序(单数 231,复数 123) 当两个以上的人称代词一起作主语时,单数按二、三、一人称排列(即 you, he / she, I);复数按一、二、三人称排

列(即 we, you, they)。但是如果做错了事需要承担责任时,要把说话人(I)放在第一位。

如:It was I and John that made her angry.

是我和约翰惹她生气了。

二、物主代词

1. 物主代词的形式

单数

复数

物主 形容词性 my your his

her its

our

your their

代词 名词性 mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs

2. 物主代词的基本用法

功能

例句

特别提示

形容词性

作定语 Her mother is a kind-hearted doctor.

形容词性物主代词作定语,相当于形

1

物主代词
名词性 物主代词(相 当于省略了 中心名词的 -'s 属格结构)

作主语 作宾语 作表语 与 of 连用 作定语

Their room is clean and tidy. That is his computer. Mine doesn’t work. Her spoken English is better than yours. This ballpen is hers. Where is mine
The red skirt of hers is very beautiful.

容词。
名词性物主代词在句中不能单独作 定语。如: Hers math is better than mine.(错! 句中的________应改为________)

3. 物主代词的特殊用法 在双重所有格中只能用名词性物主代词。如:

我的一个朋友 a friend of mine , 她的一个同学 a classmate of hers , 三、反身代词

1. 反身代词的形式 反身代词又叫自身代词,表示动作返回到动作发出者本身。

人称

单数

第一人称

myself

第二人称

yourself

第三人称

himself,herself, itself

2. 反身代词的句法功能

each brother of his.
复数 ourselves yourselves themselves

功能

例句

特别提示

作宾语

Little Jimmy can dress himself now. She cooked herself a good meal.

两句中动作的执行者与承受着 均是同一个人,故宾语只能用反 身代词,不能用 him 和 her。

作表语

The boy in the photo is myself, not Tom.
I am not myself today. 我今天不舒服。

作同位语(强调)

The baby itself laughed. I myself went to visit my teacher.

此句中,反身代词 itself 也可放 在 laughed 的后面。

和 by 等介词搭配, 构成固定短语

Never leave the child by himself at home. I don’t think I can do it by myself.

初中常用的由反身代词构成的 短语有:(见下)

3.由反身代词构成的*惯用语

① help oneself to 随便吃…… ② come to oneself 苏醒过来,醒悟,恢复知觉

③ dress oneself 自己穿衣服 ④ say to oneself 自言自语

⑤ enjoy oneself 玩得开心 ⑥ lose oneself in 迷路于,全神贯注于…之中,消失于

⑦ teach oneself 自学 ⑧ look after oneself ⑨by oneself 亲自

learn……by oneself 自学… leave one by oneself 把某人单独留下

hurt oneself 伤了自己

make yourself/yourselves at home 不必拘束

四、指示代词

单数 复数

this 这,这个 these 这些

that 那,那个 those 那些

such 这样的人或物

same 同样的人或物

This is Bill speaking. Who is that

Where will these pupils go

例句

Do you like those They are the latest fashion. I have never seen such a clever child before.

Those two dresses are the same.

He said the same thing again and again.

1. that 用来代替前面提到的不可数名词,those 代替复数名词。
The weather today is finer than that yesterday.

2

The students in this school are different from those in that one. 2. 打电话时,用 that 询问对方是谁,用 this 介绍自己。This is Jack speaking. Is that Mrs Black speaking
说明:
That 和 those 可作定语从句的先行词,但 this 和 these 不能,同时,在作先行词时,只有 those 可指人,试比较: (对) He admired that which looked beautiful. 他赞赏外表漂亮的东西。 (对) He admired those who looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的人。(those 指人) (错) He admired that who danced well. (that 作宾语时不能指人) (对) He admired those who danced well. 他赞赏跳舞好的人。(those 指人) (对) He admired those which looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的东西。(those 指物)

五、疑问代词
疑问代词有 who,whom,whose,what 和 which 等。在句子中用来构成特殊疑问句。疑问代词都可用 作连接代词,引导名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句)

如:Tell me who he is. 告诉我他是谁。



指人

指物

指人或物

主格 宾格

who 谁 whom 谁

what 什么

which 哪个,哪些

所有格

whose 谁的

whose 谁的

whose 谁的

说明 1:

无论是做疑问代词还是限定词,which 和 what 所指的范围不同。what 所指的范围是无限的,而 which 则指在

一定的范围内,例如:

Which girls do you like best

你喜欢哪几个姑娘

What girls do you like best

你喜欢什么样的姑娘

说明 2:

Whom 是 who 的宾格,在书面语中,它作动词宾语或介词宾语,在口语中作宾语时,可用 who 代替,但在介

词后只能用 whom, 例如:

Who(m) did you meet on the street

你在街上遇到了谁(作动词宾语)

Who(m) are you taking the book to

你要把这书带给谁(作介词宾语,置句首)

To whom did you speak on the campus 你在校园里和谁讲话了(作介词宾语,置介词后,不能用 who 取代。)

六、不定代词:不是指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词。常见的不定代词有 a11,both,each, every 等,以及含有 some-,any-,no-等的合成代词,如 anybody, something,no one。这些不定代 词大都可以代替名词和形容词,在句中作主语、宾语、表语和定语, 但 none 和由 some,any,no 等构成的复合不定代词只能作主语、宾语或表语;every 和 no 只能作定语。如:
-- Do you have a car --你有一辆小汽车吗 -- Yes,I have one. --是的,我有一辆。
-- I don't know any of them. 他们,我一个也不认识。

不定代词的形式 普通不定代词
个体不定代词 数量不定代词

例词 some / any somebody / anybody / nobody, someone / anyone / no one something / anything / nothing one / none every / each, other / another, either / neither everybody / everyone / everything many / much, few / a few / little / a little a lot of / lots of / a great deal of / a great many

辨析:
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不定代词

用法

some
1 any

1) 可与复数名词及不可数名词连用。 2) 当做"某一"解时,也可与单数名词连用。(= a certain)
You will be sorry for this some day. 总有一天,你会后悔这件事的。 A certain (some) person has seen you break the rule. 某些人不同意你的看法。 3) 用于肯定句中 4)表请求、建议或期望得到肯定回答时的疑问句中。Would you like some coffee **a.在条件状语从句中表示确定的意义时,如: If you need some help,let me know. **b.当否定的是整体中的部分时,some 可用于否定句。如: I haven't heard from some of my old friends these years.这些年我没有收到一些老朋友的信。 1) 多用于否定句和疑问句和条件状语从句中。 He doesn’t have any money. Are there any people in the room

If you have any questions, please ask me for help. 2) 表“任何”时,any 可用于肯定句。
Here are three novels. You may read any. 这有三本小说,你可任读一本。 You may come at any time; I’ll be home the whole day.

both 两者都

Her parents are both doctors. **a. both, all 都可作同位语,其位置在行为动词前, be 动词之后。如果助动词或情态 动词后面的实义动词省去,则位于助动词或情态动词之前。

Who can speak Japanese We both (all) can.

all 三者及以上都 可作主、宾、表、 定、同。

We all want to go to the zoo. ***all 的主谓一致:all 的单复数由它所修饰或指代的名词的单复数决定。
如: All goes well. 一切进展得很好。All that you have done is very helpful. ***all 在定语从句中作先行词时,关系词只能用 that。 ***all 通常不与可数名词单数连用,如:不说 all the book,而说 the whole book。
但 all 可与表时间的可数名词单数连用,如 all day,all night,all the year; 但*惯 上不说 all hour,all century。 all 还可以与一些特殊的单数名词连用,如 all China,all the city, all my life, all the way

either 两者之一

Either of the answers is correct.

2

neither 两者都不

Neither of us goes abroad. 1)neither 作主语时,谓语动词用单数。Neither of the two answers is right. 2)作定语与单数名词连用,但 neither… nor 用作并列连词,可与复数名词连用。其谓
语采用就*原则。

3)可用于下列句型,避免重复。如: She can't sing,neither (can) he. ***neither 与 nor
a. 如前句是否定式从句,则主句用 neither,而不用 nor。 If you don't do it,neither should I. 如果你不干,我也不干。
b. 如后连续有几个否定句式,则用 nor,不用 neither。 He can't sing,nor dance,nor

skate.

any 三者之一

Any movie is boring.

none 三者及以上都不

None of his friends has/have been to Nanjing. 1) none 作主语,多与 of 构成短语 none of。 在答语中,none 可单独使用。
I like none of the flowers. 这些花我都不喜欢。 Are there any pictures on the wall None.

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2) none 作主语,谓语动词单复数均可。但如做表语,则其单复数与表语一致。 It is none of your business.

every

Every student in our school works hard. 我们学校的学生都很用功。

三个及以上的 “每 1) every 只作形容词,不可单独使用。

个都”

Every student has to take one.

强调整体概念。 2) every 与 not 连用,表示部分否定;

只能做定语。

Every man is not honest. 并非每个人都诚实。

3) every 有反复重复的意思,如 every two weeks 等;

3 each pron. a. ad. Each student may have one book.. 每个学生都可有一本书。

两个及以上的“每 1)each 可作代词或形容词。

个”

Each boy has to take one.

强调个体概念,可

Each of the boys has to take one.

构成 of 短语

但 we each have a book.

2) each 和 not 连用表示全部否定。

Each man is not honest. 这儿每个人都不诚实。

many+ [C] "许多",
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How many people are there at the meeting Many of the workers were at the meeting. many a (=many) 但 Many books were sold. Many a book was sold. 卖出了许多书。

many/much 多用于疑、否,whether 引导的 宾从中。日常谈话中,纯粹的肯定句一般可 数的用 a large number of, a good/great many, 不可数多用 a good/great deal of, 可数不可 数均可用的有 a lot of, lots of, plenty of.

much + [U] "许多"

How much time has we left Much of the time was spent on learning.

few + [C] “没有 几个,几乎没有”

He has few friends.

他几乎没有朋友。

a few+ [C]

He has a few friends.

他有几个朋友。

“有几个”

only a few (=few) not a few (=many) quite a few (=many)

5 little+ [U] “没有多

Hurry!We have little time left.

少,几乎没有”

a little+ [U] “有一点儿”

We still have a little time. 我们还有点时间。

other+可数复数

What other animals do you like

泛指“其他的” the other day 前几天 every other day 隔天

on the other side 另一边

on the one hand… on the other hand 一方面……另一方面……

the other

one… the other 一个……另一个……(只有两个)

两者中的另一个 We have two sisters. One is 16, the other is 12.

I found one shoe, but I can’t see the other one.

one……one……the other…… 一个……,另一个……,第三个……

others = other some… others,others…

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people/things 泛 指 We shouldn’t laugh at others. “其他的人或物”

the others = the rest some… the others 一些……其他的……(有三个以上) 剩余的全部(特定 There are 50 students in our class. Some are reading, the others are doing homework. 范围内的人或物)

another 泛指三者及以上中 的另一个

… another…,the third… shirt is too small. Can I try another one
Don’t lose heart. Have another try. two/few weeks 再两(几)周= two more weeks
eg. We love here. We want to stay another three days.

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4. one after another 一个接一个地

something, anything, everything, nothing ,

复合不定代词

somebody, anybody, everybody, nobody,

作主语、宾语、表 someone, anyone, everyone,( no one)

语、定语。

作主语 Both of them are Chinese.

宾语 I know nothing about him.

表语 That’s nothing. 没什么。

定语 You may take either road.

1. 有形容词修饰,要后置。There’s sth wrong with the TV.

2. 作主语时,谓语动词用单数。Everything goes well.

辨析:

1. one,that 和 it

one 表示泛指,that 和 it 表示特指。that 与所指名词为同类,但不是同一个,而 it 与所指名词为同一个。

I can't find my hat. I think I must buy one. (不定) 我找不到我的帽子了。我想我该去买一顶。

The hat you bought is bigger than that I bought. (同类但不同个) 你买的那顶帽子比我买的大。

I can't find my hat. I don' t know where I put it. ( 同一物) 我找不到我的帽子。我不知道我把它放在哪了。

2. .anyone/any one
anyone 仅指人,any one 既可指人,也可指物。

one/nobody, none 和 no

a) none 后跟 of 短语,既可指人又可指物,而 no one 只单独使用,只指人。

None of you could lift it. 你们中没有人可举起它。

-- Did any one call me up just now --刚才有人打电话给我吗 -- No one. --没有。

b) none 用法相当于名词,一般作主语、宾语。 作主语,谓语动词用单,复数均可,而 no one 作主语谓语动词

只能是单数。

None of the problems is/ are easy to solve. None of the milk was left.

c) no one 一般回答 who,含 anyone,anybody 的疑问句。Is there anyone in the room – No one.

none 回答 how many/much 及含 any+名词的疑问句。

How many students are there in the classroom – None.

How much money do you have – None.

Is there any water in the bottle -None.

d)no 只有形容词性质,修饰不可数或可数名词。 no=not any eg. There are no books for her.

no=not a 用于连系动词后,语气很强。 The girl was no beauty. 这姑娘才不漂亮呢。

no+doing 用于讲稿·警告、命令等标识。 No smoking!

no 可修饰其他句子成分。No boy at the school have ever seen the sea.

4. both,either

both←→neither both 部分否定,neither 全部否定。 both 与复数连用,either 与单数连用。

Both the boys are clever. 两个男孩都很聪明。 Either of the two boys is clever. 两个男孩都很聪明。

There are flowers on both sides of the street.

There are flowers on either side of the street. 路边长满了野

花。

5. all (所有的,全部的人或物),any (任何一个), none (都不)。 以上词使用范围为三者以上。

none←→all 。all 部分否定,none 全部否定。

All the flowers are gone. 所有的花都谢了。 I don't like any of the flowers. 这些花我都不喜欢。

I like none of the flowers. 这些花我都不喜欢。

注意:all 与 none 用法一样。跟单数名词,用单数动词;跟复数名词,用复数动词。

All of the students are there. 所有的学生都在那。All (of) the milk is there.

所有的牛奶都在那。

6. “the”的作用

他是帮我的学生之一。He is one of the students who help me. 第一句定语从句与 the students 一致。

He is the one of the students who helps me. 第二句定语从句与 the one 一致。

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